Gli ultimi quattro articoli scientifici del Prof. Giulio Tarro.

Pubblichiamo gli abstract degli ultimi quattro articoli scientifici del Prof. Giulio Tarro. Cliccando sul titolo di ognuno si può scaricarne l’articolo completo.

The Spread of the new coronavirus

The spread of COVID-19 continues in China and in the world as the World Health Organization(WHO) baptized it, warned since 31-12-2019 of the new SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome).The epidemic has its own basic reproduction number, Ro, which is considered less than 1 when it runsout of passage from one individual to another and tends to rise as in the previous SARS epidemic(2002-2003) between 2 and 4 to get to measles with values of 12-18. The current Ro is estimatedbetween 2 and 3. More than 86 thousand are infected today 03-3-2020, with almost 3 thousand deaths.Flights to China have been suspended, while seasonal flu has infected and killed more people.

The New Coronavirus from the Chinese City of Wuhan

A pneumonia outbreak in the Chinese city of Wuhan was reported to WHO on the last dayof the year 2019. A new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was identified a week later. WHO hasest ablished the guide for all countries to prepare for the new viral infection. After threeweeks, the Chinese authorities confirmed the transmission of the virus from one person toanother. Meanwhile, other cases have been reported in Thailand, South Korea, Japan,United States, Russia and Europe. After just over four weeks, the number of peopleinfectedisover 20.000 and the victims are 425.

Pathogenesis of COVID-19 and the Body’s Responses

Children are infected with the virus without suffering a serious disease and represent an importantsource of infection. It has been experimentally proven that young mice respond to lung tissuedamage from viral infection through prostaglandins, while adult mice succumb. The angiotensinconvertingenzyme (ACE) 2 receptor is particularly abundant on the cells of the lower lungpathways, whose situation explains the high incidence of bronchitis and pneumonia related to thesevere infection of COVID-19. A fall in ACE2 activity in the elderly is partly responsible for thedecreased ability to reduce the inflammatory response with old age. The reduction of ACE2receptors in older adults puts them in a position where they are unable to cope with COVID-19. InItaly from the details of the medical records of the current hospitalized as well as those dischargedhealed and unfortunately the victims do not seem to have any foreigner in the sense of a non-EUcitizen.Non-EU citizens are all covered by a tuberculosis vaccine which is part of a coverageprotocol provided by the Local Health Unit.It seems that flu vaccination favors coronavirusinfection, even greater than 36% as reported by an American military study. Both meningococcaland pneumociccic disease have been associated with the activity of influenza and respiratorysyncytial viruses.The Istituto Superiore della Sanità recently stated that few deaths are fromcoronavirus and instead most put of them from other pathologies (cardiovascular, cancer, diabetes,etc.). This suggests that the overall clinical consequences of COVID-19 could ultimately be similarto that of severe seasonal flu, which has a fatality rate of approximately 0.1%, or pandemic influenzasuch as that of 1957 or 1968. , rather than those of SARS or MERS, characterized respectively by afatality of 10% and 36%.

Further news on coronavirus COVID-19 from Italy

Northern Italy, especially Lombardia and Veneto, has been affected by the COVIDepidemic for weeks. Trying to isolate the carriers of the disease in connection with China is not aneffective strategy to contain the disease, since the virus is transmitted like the flu virus and we canexpect to have patients who have had no contact with possible carriers. According to Coronavirusgenetic map, there are 3 isolated viruses in Italy. After that of Spallanzani (Rome) Covid 1 (Chinese),that of S. Raffaele Covid 2 (mutation of Chinese already known from the references) called Milanese,here is that of Sacco Hospital which is only a relative of the first two. It seems to be the same as thatisolated in Finland, Germany, South America and it is hypothesized to have arrived in Europe longbefore the Chinese epidemic (November 2019– March 2020). In Italy, however, the number of swabsand the procedures for carrying them out is essentially left to the arbitration of the Regions; a chaosthat prevents any reference model from being determined. With this situation, it is not clear whyamong the various strategies that could have been adopted, after the home isolation of the populationnot engaged in certain work activities, there is even a quarantine for all people. Measure that it is notclear how long it can last.The real number of people infected in Italy is at least 4 or five times higherthan that declared by the recovered patiens. Lombardia is the region in the first place for usingtampons; this is the reason combined with the casual praxis to present as “coronavirus deaths”patients who, on the other hand, could have deaths associated with coronavirus (ie suffering fromprevious pathologies that caused death) that could explain the “mortality peak forLombardia. It would be appropriate before identifying the primary cause of death in COVID19,carrying out the necessary pathological investigations and, above all, defining a standard to be appliedthroughout the national territory.

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